Homo  robustus  bigfooticus
        Bigfooticus  and  Their  Babies 
                      As seen in  USA TODAY
   See  first  ever  real  infant  photo.  More  info.  below
They are NOT 1/2 apes, Gigantopithecus or Beasts
-They are hominids related to Lucy & us.
  Anthropologist,  paleoanthropologist & others - Please be responsible - non-dismissive,
-prejudicial,  and open minded.  ASK  thoughtful  questions  and  take  note.

    New major discoveries of  6  living  HRB  young in  2008 & 09.
are genuine ( hominin) hominid  discoveries & science.
  Not only do Miller's discoveries prove beyond any doubt that
  really do exist - but his many observations and discoveries shed much light on who and what they are and how closely "   our living hominin kin "   are related to us !     

         An actual photo of a            The rest of  Zuzu's  body  &  the  bottoms
Bigfoot-icus  baby         of her feet are in the books  1 st  release
   "   Zuzu " clenches her teeth in fear !          without  her  camoulflaging  hair
First  Bigfoot  Baby  closeup   -     9 month old "   Mona  Zuzu "
discovered  in  2008  by Tom Miller.          What are we looking at ?- See below:  
without her camouflaging hair.                Bigfooticus Baby skulls are shaped  like
her head was tilted slightly downward               the  later  robust  Australopithecines  and
& her head & neck muscles were flexing         early Homo genera (genuses) with  adult 
    & bottoms of her feet are human shaped.         cranial size  2  X   Homo habilis  which
Her cranium is 40% that of  an human infant.      overlaps  both  H. erectus &  H. sapiens

skeleton  day  1              adult skull viewed            robust fossil clavicle 
                                                from above                      from  ( d-site )

       Miller has discovered where they go when they are cold , wounded, 
          sick or dieing  &
   Where their skeletal remains may be found ! 

Five ( 5 ) individual non-Sapiens living hominin  Beings were discovered in 2008 & a sixth
in  2009  by  Tom Miller.   Miller named them in order of his discoveries :  Infant  Teddy,
Buddy, Zoe, infant Mona Zuzu , Clarence Oddbody & seven year old  Tommy Boy  in 09.
Three  years of  quiet &  careful study lead
Miller to many other  Bigfooticus  discoveries.
All supported by photo,  moving video and other indisputable paleoanthopological evidence.   

Welcome friend  &  seeker  of  Bigfoot-icus  understanding &  knowledge:

     A  Colorado conservationists has stumbled upon numerous major discoveries over the last three years and wishes to share them with you in a newly released  150  +  page  E-book.  After contemplating Veterinary School and the Colorado School of  Mines,  Tom Miller entered the  University of Colorado School of  Engineering.  Miller graduated from C.U. with a diversified education background including  paleoanthropological studies of  higher hominid & human evolution.  After college - he endeavored  to  persevere and expand his geologic knowledge by  working as a roughneck on an oil-rig etc.  He is a woodsman and in years past was an avid  bow-hunter of  large game.  Miller lives near many Wilderness  Areas and a  National Park . 
He  breeds  2,000 lb.  Percheron draft horses on his farm and in the 1980's contributed to the recovery of the endangered California Condor when only 26 birds existed in the world.  These factors - combined with a rounded  background  enabled Miller to be calm,  rational and open-minded when he made his first historic discoveries of  five  Non-Sapiens  living  hominins in  2008.  His first thought was "   Wow- They really are real ! "  
  He quietly and methodically followed his discoveries with a woodsman's senses & animal understandings which - combined with his scientific hominid education - led  Miller to many more discoveries.  He discovered his sixth  non-Sapiens  hominin Being - ( an approximate seven year old ) in  2009.   All six are supported by photo,  moving picture video evidence and other  scientific evidence - collected over three years.  Many of  Miller's discoveries dispel many promoted misconceptions  & responsibly  shed new light on our shy,  timid,  highly intelligent  &  NOW - closest known living kin.
      Miller's cumulative discoveries have benefited our scientific understandings
of our newly  proven & described  hominin  kin - which he has dubbed
"   Homo robustus bigfo
oticus "  .    His scientific  hominin  naming  is justified by the new fossil record ,  Miller's many new discoveries & other cumulative evidence - (see robust Australopithecines @  Australopithecus  boisei ) - which are more thoroughly explained in the just released - as of  12 - 1 - 2010  limited  time  e-book.
      No Risk
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order  via  ClickBank or Paypal.
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                                           See:  USA  TODAY
                            Available via E-book for a limited time  
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Help Preserve !   Be informed ! 
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   Click  Here to Order  &  receive  your  E-book  Now !
     We guarantee that you will learn more about our cousins than all other publications which falsely portray our hominin  kin as  1/2  apes  or  beasts
( which they are not )
&  you will gain new insights into our own hominin past.  Miller's new evidence indicates that they share near  99.9
% DNA with Homo sapiens. You'll be entertained by Miller's discoveries & close encounter stories.
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 We bring  hominids  to  life

California  Condor


" Bigfooticus  and  Their  Babies "
  H. robustus  bigfooticus  

  Today is 11-30-2010.   First Full skeletal reveal
              As   seen   in  
USA  TODAY   the
        First ever close-up of a real
           living 9 month old infant

                   " Mona  Zuzu "
                            Book out with  full  body shots of  Zuzu
                            Guaranteed learning and reading satisfaction

            " Mona Zuzu " Copyright  2010     Discoverer  Tom  Miller

  Mona  clenches her teeth in fear and flexes her enormous zygomatic cheek, skull and neck muscles !

                           Full body shot of 
Zuzu including her feet in the E-book.

    Zuzu's  brain size is  40% that of a human newborn yet her mother's
  brain size is approx. 75 + % that of an adult human.  Human brain sizes
  are near  full size at about 4  1/2 years old whereas 
              have near twice the time frame of skull and brain growth.

   Notice how she flexes her head, skull and neck muscles to turn her head.
   Her  zygomatics  are  very  ROBUST  Australopithecine (A. Boisei ) like.
  She has a tiny chin and her mother has  a  more  pronounced chin than  Homo erectus.

            Zuzu is just the tip of the ice-burg of many real photo and
      video images of several discovered real living  Bigfooticus  young.

Close-up  photo  of  an  infant - 9 month old " Zuzu "
   with  her  ROBUST  Australopithecine (A. boisei) face  &  skull.
  Her mixed anatomical comparisons to the genus Australopithecus 
shoulder width and arm lengths - versus  her comparable torso
  to leg proportions to the genus Homo and her mother's 1000 + cc
  cranium  which overlaps  both   Homo  erectus  Homo  sapiens.
               Modern  Human   Homo  sapiens   averages    1350  cc - brain sizes.
       Homo  sapiens  neanderthalensis   averaged    1480  cc         +/-
              Homo  robustus  bigfooticus                      1000  cc           "
                 (Erect Man) Homo erectus                        950  cc           "
               (Handy Man ) Homo  habilis                        700  cc           "
                Australopithecus  boisei  ( pre  Bigfooticus )  600  cc   upper end
         Australopithecus  robustus         "              550  cc
                           A. africanus                                     500  cc           "
                           A. afarensis ( Lucy )                        430  cc
                                               Bonobo                        410  cc
                         Common Chimpanzee                        400  cc

                        New  instant E-book available !                 
with  Guaranteed  learning

 and reading satisfactionCheck back soon.
                       Proceeds  to  support  Preservation  via  Hunter  awareness.                                                   

                                   NEW 150 + page  E-book cover below
             Homo  robustus  bigfooticus         Homo  sapiens  sapiens        
                   Homo  robustus  bigfooticus           ( fossil ) robust  clavicle
                        Copyright  2010
                                                Hominid  Research  Biomechanics   HRB
  Please check back weekly to see the latest evidence updates.
 Extra low priced e-book available soon on Miller's 6 (six) discovered
   living  HRB  Beings  aged   6  months  old  to  30  years  old   
        corroborated  by  photo  &  moving  video  evidence  etc.
Proceeds to benefit ( Hunter ) public  awareness & to promote their Protections.

Keep an open and flexible mind when it comes to hominid and hominin evolution(s). We have only scratched the surface and several  BIG  Homo  robustus  bigfooticus discoveries which shed new light on  hominin  reproduction behaviors & survival strategies - will soon be announced ! 
                  See  more  at  LivingHominids.com           

        (c)   (c)     
      Chimpanzee                Bigfooticus                       robust  clavicle                Asia  to  America
                                                                                                                 via many Beringias
                                                                                                                    during  ice  ages

   Africa to Asia to N.America        Top view skull 
                                                 skeleton  day 1


 Our  goal  is  Species  Preservation
 & to make  learning  fun !
 WE need your help !
 Spread the word and tell your friends & colleagues
 about our sites !  Real  Bigfooticus  will  be  grateful !

                      Contributions                              Bigfooticus   Conservation 
                      Scientific  or  media                    P.O. Box  1689
                      Contact  request:                         Longmont ,  Colorado      80502  

                                  Thank  You
- on  their  behalf  !

                Miller's  prior conservation projects  below
                            California   Condor  -  Osprey   -   Owls
                      Also see more at  


                                         yum chicken
                                     Hand raised Barn owl              Note: Not a monkey           Yum - chicken                   18  Hands   2000  lbs.
                  on Miller's farm
                     but a Chimpanzee
shares nearly  99 %
                                                              DNA with humans.

      Osprey w fish                Baby  &  mother              Father delivers fish              Two  1 ton stallions
on Miller's farm

                              Updated weekly
    Add this to your favorites so you can learn the latest
  HRB  revelations
while you drink your morning coffee ! 
                                       lesson # 3               

Neanderthal man
      Homo sapiens neanderthalensis

                            Lesson   3  near  bottom

    " Neanderthal depictions by paleoanthropologists over the years as sub-humans without sophisticated language skills has been absurdly
illogical and prejudicial in their understanding of not only hominin evolution - but  animal communication abilities and evolution in general. " 

H.  sapiens  neanderthalensis   man    average brain size  1480 cc
       H.  sapiens  sapiens                  man    average brain size  1350 cc

      They  did  get  the  Homo sapiens  name  on  both  shapes  correct.


A must see is  paleo-artist  John Gurche's accurate
          first ever 
non-prejudicial  rendition of a
                       Neanderthal man for the
         Smithsonian Institution's hominin exhibit.

 More on Neanderthal man near the bottom.

SEE  Ookbert
             You have already seen his skull in 
     USA TODAY and other publications.


  HRB  is dedicated to the entertaining study & education  about  our  hominin  kin  and  the  new  near  monthly   discoveries  across   the  globe  from  the  4.4  million   year  old    Ardipithecus  ramidus   (Ardi )  through  3.2  million  year  old   Australopithecus  afarensis (Lucy), their  presumed descendants of Australopithecus  africanus , Australopithecus  robustus , Australopithecus  boisei  & the  other robust  Australopithecines , Homo habilis , H. floresiensis, Homo  robustus   bigfooticus  TM  and   the  many   intermediate  hominin  forms  including  Neanderthals - Homo sapiens  neanderthalensis   and  Homo erectus  etc.  

     This  site  should  be  added  to  your  favorites -           so that you can check back every  so often,  drinking  your morning  coffee to see the  latest  discoveries,  skeletal  analysis  of  the  bio-mechanics  of the various  hominin  skeletal  structure  comparisons to each other and  to modern  Sapiens  and the many   other discoveries  including  habitats and their distinctive and unique reproductive and survival strategies.

   Stay tuned for our new adventures through time. 

                                    NEW   Lesson  #  4       

UPDATE - As  I  mentioned last year and in my book - the rumored 300 lb. new ape species dubbed Bili Ape has recently been confirmed in African jungles !
How could a 300 pound ape species be unknown & unconfirmed in our densely human populated world all the way into 2010 ? 
An ape which can not elude humans via bipedal locomotion as " our living hominin kin "  BIGFOOTICUS  do.

                                         Lesson  #  1      
    Our  first  lesson  will  be  about  3.2  million  year  old  Lucy

                             Australopithecus  afarensis
                            3.7  to  2.9  million years ago 
minimum- range)

 Keep in mind - just because a fossil of a  hominin  shape
presumptive species
)  has  not been found  outside the proven range - it is highly likely that - that  shape  lived  long before & long after the known fossil samples as the  probabilities  of  finding  the  first  or  last  individual of any  shape (species) is probably almost ZERO !   Rodents and other animals quickly recycle calcium.   Watch how quickly lions , hyenas and vultures quickly scatter the skeletons of animals.  
    Fossils are hard to make and even harder to find
    Especially if you are looking in the wrong places. 

                                  Critical  thinking  is  the  key  !
                                   Question the  stated " facts ".

                Some scientists have lots of book  learnin  schmarts  but
              have little experience with real animals or animal behaviors.

      Although Lucy has lost favor as a topic of discussion these past few  years, especially with the discovery of ( Ardi ) Ardipithecus ramidus who lived 4.4 million years ago,  she is very significant - because - she turned   the community of paleoanthopology upside down when she was announced by Donald Johanson - who discovered her in November of 1974.  Lucy  was named after the Beatles song - Lucy in the sky with diamonds ,  which was being played over and over in camp - when she was discovered.
      Prior to Lucy - it was assumed that hominids (hominins) had to have large brains before they could learn to walk  on two legs ( bipedalism ).   Forget  the obvious fact that birds (dinosaurs) with their birdbrains had been doing it for tens of millions of years.  That is why , prior to Lucy - there were many cartoons  showing  Darwin's  head on an apes  body all  hunched over and why  most of the cave-man exhibits throughout the  world  showed  cave  people bent over as  if  their  heads were  full  size and their  bodies  were  catching up  and straightening  out  evolutionarily.  We now know that the   scientists of the first  3/4  of  the twentieth century were  kind of  silly  in their  postulations - but at the time they had no hard evidence one way or the other. That is one of the reasons  why  Lucy  is so significant.  She got us on a more true path to understanding our progress through time.  Lucy  had a brain roughly the same size as a  chimpanzee  yet the rest of her  skeleton was very similar to modern human design. She was small, at three  and a half  feet tall  &  weighed less than 80 pounds - but her slightly more curved hands  &  the rest of her skeleton were used very much like modern Homo sapiens.  She was fully upright with basically a more refined Bonobos  chimpanzee type skull and with no larger brain than a modern chimpanzee.  Her  feet  were very similar to ours.  Later on - came the  discovery of even older - footprints - in  3.6 million  year old  volcanic  ash  of  Laetoli   which  presumably  showed - that two Lucys (Afarensis) walked  side  by  side  & one  of  them  was  probably  caring  a baby,  as her footprints  and  stride appeared  altered as  if  she were  caring  a  young  one on her hip.  The tracks  next  to  hers  were  larger  and thus  the  inference  is - that  she  had  her  mate  walking  with her.  If  it  was her  husband  walking  with her,  the certificate  has long since vanished.

                                       More  on  Lucy  later.

                                            Lesson  # 2

The  short  history  of  Paleoanthropology
is  mostly  not  a  good  one.
     In 1912  the  Piltdown hoax was perpetrated by some unscrupulous characters  in England, one of the least logical sites for early hominins to evolve.  The stubborn scientific community took 40 years to figure out that an ape jaw had been attached to a human skull even though the hoax had been pointed out decades earlier.  This led many  prejudicial scientist to ignore the true great
hominin  discoveries of Africa.  Many are just as prone to cultural, religious or self interest prejudices and are in denial of the obvious today as scientists were then.  They have allowed inflexibility of mind to rule their reasoning & ridicule with dismissive words - the great new discoveries that debunk what they have been  wrongly teaching over their  careers.  A recent  example is the dismissive language used by a paleoanthropologist about the great discovery of  Ardi  (Ardipithecus ramidus)  saying :  " That ain't the foot of a biped ",  which demonstrates  that  jealousies can permeate science discoveries too.  That ridiculing scientist obviously does not fully understand the gradual processes of evolution.  Ardi  is obviously a biped.  Ardi  was  studied and analyzed for more than ten years before  he  was announced to the world.   Most people do not realize that this field of study  is as much interpretive art - as science - and more often than not - the  prognostications of  the prognosticators have been wrong.    
       So keep an open and flexible mind when it comes to hominid  &  hominin evolution(s). We have only scratched the surface  &  several great  discoveries which shed new light on hominin  reproductive behavior and survival strategies will soon be announced !    

        Since humans are the least densely haired great apes,  it should have been obvious that we evolved in a very warm, stable and probably very humid environment as even deserts tend to get too cold at night  for our light hair covering.  Our hair covering did not become less because  we  invented clothing ,  clothing was created by smart adaptable hominins who ventured outside their  historic body comfort zones - probably following game and other resources.  Exposure to the elements was obviously not enough of a selective factor (evolution) to cause a large reversal in body hair denseness.    It  seems that the most likely reason we retained lush head hair - is that our brains function best with stable temperatures.  Hair keeps the rain ,  sun and both heat and cold out.   What seems perplexing  is why we did not retain more hair on the tops of our feet and shoulders as sun shields. 
        Maybe the denseness of their jungle habitat sheltered them from much of the direct rays of the burning sun.
        Part of the problem is that scientists forget that before humans with their stone or metal axes - the world was more densely forested and the forest were much more widespread and had their internal relative humidity helping to maintain their edges and expansions or to preserve themselves (forests) from shrinking.
        Another problem is - that dry areas today with their washed out canyons and valleys - are favored  by scientists because larger areas can
be searched on foot and the bones can wash out and be exposed in the sediment layers.
        If a bone has traveled down stream or down hill- sometimes like gold nuggets- it can be traced back uphill to their source and more bones or more of the skeleton can be discovered.  That is much harder to do in jungles and it is much harder to excavate in jungled or forested areas.

        Even though the now desert areas where the searches occur today may have been jungles millions of years ago, today's environment still skews the search locations & thus the hominin skeletal evidence may be very much skewed because of the selection of those search sites.
        Our loss of hair denseness may have played a major role in our brain developments and mate selections.  That is a big unknown - as is the hair denseness on many  hominins ( so called species ).  
        We know ancestral humans at one time had dense hair covering - as newborn babies still retain some of their strong hair grasping instinct and grip for awhile.

        The reason peoples tended to become lighter and lighter skinned as they  lived farther north is  that a  pale face can produce as much of the essential nutrient - Vitamin  D -  via the suns exposure to the skin as a whole body of a very dark skinned person.  Thus over time - the  lighter skinned  hominins  who lived farther north or wore  more clothing, tended to be healthier than the ones who were not  producing enough vitamin D - and thus,  on average - had an advantage in passing along
of their genes. Therefore , over time - more  northerly  tribal  populations  tended to become  lighter and lighter skinned.  It has been shown that there is a connection between skin color,  hair and eye color  gene expressions  as well.  Freckles and red hair are an example.  Darker skin is obviously more advantageous in  warm - sunny - southern climates.

     Additionally;  body mass of all animal species including humans - tends to become larger the farther north they live. This is a function of conserving or dissipating body heat and referred to as  Bergmann's  rule.   The extinct cave bear is a prime example.  In between cold glacial periods their body's shrank in mass and grew when the cold returned.  Growing and shrinking many times.
         Before people moved around so much,  about 1,000 or so years ago, population(s) gene pools were much more effected and thus reflectively expressed by their local environments.  In steep mountainous areas of the world , people of each village can tend to have their own "look" as it is easier to find a girlfriend in your own village where the people are friendly toward you - than climbing that 10,000 foot hill to compete with the neighbor village boys.  Thus - in small villages , many people are related to each other in some fashion.
         Natural selection is still going on in the Human populations today, it     is just hard to gauge  with the rapid population explosion in the last few hundred years combined with other non environmental factors.
        Homo sapiens are likely the first hominins to have large numbers.  Neanderthals had 10% larger brains and lived side by side " modern Sapiens " for an amazing 130,000 plus years - but they had to contend with ice ages and harsh winters which no doubt - took a toll on their overall numbers.  Their young may have been less likely to survive & adults more likely to become injured.
    Their depictions by  paleoanthropologists over the years as  sub-humans without  sophisticated  language skills is illogical  and prejudicial in their understandings of not just hominin evolution, but animal communication abilities and communication and evolution in general. 

Supreme  Homo  sapiens  neanderthalensis  were  the  first  known hominins to bury their dead with what appears to be a belief in the after life or possible religion.  Their tool kits were superior to Sapiens for tens of thousands of years.  They were probably overwhelmed by shear numbers after more than 100,000 years of holding their ownThat  is a long time.  Slight technological advantages by  Sapiens  such as the Atlatl (spear-thrower), possible new diseases transmitted by Sapiens and  those shear numbers probably eventually overwhelmed them.  Some probably were also absorbed into the gene pool of Sapiens  and  visa-versa ,  although their genes would likely be watered down by now - unless those genes had a strong selective advantage.
    A big article in Discover - the world of science in Sept. of 1995 expounds upon all the reasons why the two (so called) species could not interbreed. Recent  D.N.A. analysis shows just how presumptive, irrational, illogical and prejudiced the scientific community can be and how they can brainwash themselves to justify their postulations, actions,  mis-teachings  and biased beliefs which are not based in rational reasoning  processes.  If you ever hear a scientists or paleoanthropologist  use  the word " far fetched "   it is probably a hint that they are covering their ignorance of a subject.

                                       Lesson  2  1/2

      A very few number of people have dominated and controlled the interpretations and reporting of hominin discoveries in the last 50 years and the media has not been well enough informed to question the many theories that have defied common sense.  That is still ongoing. An example of that was the "Single Species Hypothesis" promoted by Professor Wol.... who had no proof and who must have never set foot in a dense forest or jungle.  His dominate teachings stated that two different similar species could not live side by side for various reasons.  His many theories were and are not supported by science or common sense.  His absurd teachings were discredited decades earlier by Darwin's discoveries of the many different finch species occupying different niches in a relatively small area and - for hominins - by the discoveries of Australopithecus africanus, Australopithecus boisei  ( a robust Australopithecine ), A. robustus and Homo habilis and A. sediba living side by side and probably in harmony for hundreds of thousands of years or more.
      The depictions on T.V. of various hominin groups millions of years ago in conflict with one another over food resources etc. is not logical nor supportable either.  The main conflicts and threats besides injury or disease to hominins and hominids over those first millions of years were likely predators, not each other.  Big cats would probably be number one - followed by hyenas, canids, crocodiles, snakes and occasionally eagles.
       Africa is a huge area with dense jungles and forests and has many isolation barriers such as:  the many large rivers which are a great deterrent to movement.  These barriers could keep many hominin groups relatively separated from each other for thousands of years. Their particular isolated niche of the jungle or transition zone or whatever, may have favored certain teeth size and design and other body part shapes for each group - for that particular time and climate in history.  That however; does not make them a new species.  We have at least five great ape species  (including Sapiens) living today in Africa and it is rumored that a new larger species of Chimpanzee may exist.  A new population of 1,000 very rare Bonobos has just been discovered in Africa and announced to the world.  Up until the last ten thousand years - we five great ape species have lived in relative harmony in Africa.
      A minority group has tried hard in recent years to force their prejudices about Australopithecines into the scientific and public consciousness by trying to demote them to a genus called Paranthropus.  A more thoughtful and logical majority has pushed back and re-established the Genus name Australopithecus.  According to most paleoanthropologists - A. africanus evolved into Homo habilis  etc. - who evolved into H. erectus - who evolved into H. sapiens neanderthalensis and Homo sapiens sapiens  etc. etc.  Every time they find a new shaped head or skeleton they like to give it a new species name. " Homo sapiens heidelbergensis fifth and main streetensis ".   Genetic variability, which allows the driving forces of evolution to work , doesn't enter their minds.
       Or the fact:  That all of these so called species could interbreed and produce viable offspring ,  which is the scientific definition and rational for species classification.  There is no logical proof that a Homo habilis and     Homo sapiens could not breed and produce viable fertile offspring. Their chromosome numbers would be the same and their DNA would be about     99.9 % the same.  It is even logical to assume that late Australopithecines and late Homo are close enough genetically to breed and produce not only viable - but fertile and reproducable offspring.
     Therefore:  the scientific definition of species has long been violated by paleoanthropologists and the art and science of paleoanthopology.  There is some room for excuse here though; as it does make it easier for students to follow the evolution of the many human (forms & shapes) through time.  From Lucy to the present.

            There  is no definitive dividing line between
          the Genus  Australopithecus  &  the Genus Homo
          Australopithecines  are  ancestral  to  Homo.

RememberIt is not like one morning - a  mother  Australopithecus  africanus - Mrs. Hatfield  said :  " Hey honey look - I  just gave birth to a Homo habilis - lets name him Adam  and  hey - the  McCoys  are having  a  baby  soon - maybe they will be  blessed with a Habilis  too and can name her Eve . "

    Evolution is a little more gradual than that and the fact that the fossils which happen to be discovered - fall into a certain time period and locale which may have influenced certain aspects of the Beings bodies should not make one come to any conclusions that each different shape is a new species that could not - some how - share its D.N.A. with other hominins of different shapes given the circumstances.
    There is no defining line between the Genus Homo and Genus Australopithecus except the arbitrary findings of those fossils and the presumptions and educated guesses of the scientists studying the teeth etc. of those partial fossils.  They have no logical proof that the contemporary hominins over the last two and a half million years could not interbreed given the right circumstances - as their DNA was probably more than 99.9 %  identical to each other for hundreds of thousands of years. 
    Hominin population groups did not have to be replaced by other invading hominins to change shapes as we have been misled to believe.
    The forces of natural selection ( evolution ) were and are at work on all the hominin groups throughout the world and their DNA is and was near identical.  Those similar evolutionary forces combined with the sharing of DNA by close geographic groups caused all groups to continue to grow - on average - larger brains and evolve body shapes which suited their habitat
    Extrapolations can be done back through time.  If Bonobos and Chimpanzees and Humans share roughly 99 % of DNA and current estimates of our divergence from each other are between 8 and 12 million years - with probably  9 to 10 million years being a good starting point , then each million years of divergence would extrapolate out to about one tenth of one percent difference in DNA.  Each one hundred thousand years would be about 1/100  of one percent.  If so called different shaped species occasionally interbred for those hundreds of thousands of years then that could drop to 1/1000 th of one percent difference in DNA. 
                                       Hardly a new species.

    If scientists dug up a Chiwawa skeleton and a St. Bernard skeleton and were told one was one million years old and the other 900,000 years old, no doubt - with the differences in skull crest jaw muscle attachments and size differences - they would conclude that they were two unique species. We know that those two breeds are separated by less than a thousand years and a female St. Bernard  A.I. ed  by a male Chiwawa will produce viable fertile puppies with features somewhere betwixt the two breeds.   Some  Homo sapiens populations (races) have been separated from each other for 100,000 years and yet have Zero problem when together, of producing very viable offspring. 

                     So  WHAT'S  THE  POINT  again  ? 

Different sizes (including teeth) & different shapes & proportions of body parts are not always - indicative of different species !
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Lesson  3 

Neandertal  MAN
Homo  sapiens  neanderthalensis

Neandertal man is a prime example of said  
  preconceived prejudices by paleoanthropologists.

      For decades they have been maligned as sub-humans and continue to be - to this day  for unfounded reasons. Their thin numbers in relation to Sapiens were apparently absorbed or went " extinct ".   There have been some skeletal remains that appear to be crosses between Sapiens and Neandertals.
        Neanderthals had average brain sizes of 1480cc which were 10% larger than so called modern Sapiens, who average 1350 cc.  Even Cro-Magnon man ( early European Sapiens) had bigger brains than current humans.  Paleoanthropologists  usually  call  this  130 cc  Neanderthal brain size advantage"slight or insignificant" when comparing to us.  But it is guaranteed - that if the tables and figures were reversed,  those same scientists would all  be  expounding  upon  how  significant  those extra 130 cc  in  brains  are  to  Sapiens  superiority  over Neandertals. 

The facts are: 

        Neandertals lived at least 230,000 years ago to at least 24,000 years ago and 130,000 years of that time they lived next to or side by side with Homo  sapiens.
ROBUST  (appearance) is a combination of evolving from Homo erectus and the colder climate that they inhabited. Their low density numbers probably reflected most other hominin groups throughout most of history.  
         Sapiens might be the first hominins to live in large communities with many families.  The numbers game may be the prime reason for our ultimate dominance.  It may be a combination of many factors that took 100,000  years for Sapiens to replace, absorb & push Neandertals from their range.  We humans speak in terms of 1,000 years being a long time.  Co-habitation of  two differently shaped  Sapiens  hominins  (so called species) for  100,000  years  is  comparatively - a  very long time.

                  A  decades  long  promoted    
                  scientific  ABSURDITY  
    For years the foolishness of many anthropologists, scientists and paleoanthropologists  have and continue    to this day - to assume that  Neanderthals  did not have sophisticated language -  because for many years they had not found  hyoid  neck bones (near Adam's apple) with Neanderthal skeletons.
hyoid is the only human bone that is free floating and is not attached to another bone.  Predators often go for the soft throat and a loose bone could easily be dispersed or washed away etc.   

The idea that humans all of a sudden "evolved"     
hyoid  bone for speech out of thin D.N.A. air lacks common sense to such a degree that those scientists - should have to retake kindergarten science.

          Now that several Neanderthal  hyoid  bones  have been discovered and are almost an exact match for Homo sapiens hyoid bones, some reactive so called anthropologists now theorize that the reason Neandertals appear to have gone extinct - is because their tongues were fatter and placed differently in their throats allowing them to swallow better, but which allowed them only half the sounds that we can make. " GET  A  GRIP ! " 
         These non-scientifically supported, nonsensical prejudicial postulations against our Neanderthal brethren;  are  stupendously  outrageous !

    Even the great U.S. hominins  (who are known to have mastered speech) were overwhelmed by superior numbers at the  Alamo,  Korea  &  Philippines in WWII !     Their  tongues  were  not  fat ! 

     Neanderthal man had to contend with many ice ages whereby - the sheets of ice that were created in those colder times reduced their living area and their game's living area.  Their prey would be effected along with the plants that both Neanderthal man and the animals ate.
     During the peak of those ice ages their ranges would be condensed and the many winter survival stresses magnified. Warm centuries would return and they could again expand their ranges with the newer, stronger, more robust and smarter versions of themselves that made it through the prior tough times.
      H. Sapiens ; most of whom were living in Africa - did not have to contend with those cold climates until the last 100,000 years or so and thus could continue to increase their numbers without those intervening periods of numbers constriction and contraction brought about by the climate and severe winters.

      So when you hear derogatory comments about Neandertals, remember - Had the tables been turned - they might be showing skulls of those ancient tall foreheaded  hominins - who had wimpy skeletons - in their schools with the teachers saying to their students:
    " Obviously -  Homo sapiens  with their smaller brains probably did not have the capacity for sophisticated language and thus - with their skinny necks and tongues couldn't communicate with each other to get out of the way of the moving glaciers" " That kids - is why those melon headed beings are no longer with us today "
 At which point  
the class clown  - would
    throw a spear into the chalkboard and be sent to the                                         Principal's cave.

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